Wikipedia Etf

Wikipedia Etf ETF Definition: Exchange Traded Funds – börsengehandelte Indexfonds

Der Begriff ETF wird auch synonym mit Indexfonds benutzt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Geschichte; 2. ETF steht als Abkürzung für: Eidgenössisches Turnfest, eine Sportveranstaltung in der Schweiz; Elektronentransferierendes Flavoprotein, ein Proteinkomplex. Der Index des DAX ETFs entwickelt sich immer genauso wie der Aktien-Index. Das einfache Prinzip ist, dass der DAX ETF steigt, wenn der zugrundeliegende. Mit ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds) können Sie einfach und günstig in Aktien investieren und langfristig Vermögen aufbauen. Ein ETF ist ein börsengehandelter. ETF – was ist das genau? In heutigen Depots befinden sich nicht nur Aktien. Auch ETFs tauchen verstärkt auf. Anleger schätzen an dieser Anlageform die Chance.

Wikipedia Etf

iShares ist weltweit führender Anbieter von ETFs. Mit ETFs können Sie günstig und lexible für sich und Ihre Familie Geld anlegen und sparen. Der Begriff ETF wird auch synonym mit Indexfonds benutzt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Geschichte; 2. Online: happynewyear2019wishes.co (letzter Zugriff: ). happynewyear2019wishes.co

However, it varied greatly during the week dropping to a low of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Market trend.

This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Finance , June 24, Hoboken : Wiley , , pp.

Categories : Exchange-traded funds. Hidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from March All articles lacking in-text citations.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Indexes may be based on stocks, bonds , commodities, or currencies.

An index fund seeks to track the performance of an index by holding in its portfolio either the contents of the index or a representative sample of the securities in the index.

There are various ways the ETF can be weighted, such as equal weighting or revenue weighting. The first and most popular ETFs track stocks.

Stock ETFs can have different styles, such as large-cap , small-cap, growth, value, et cetera. Others such as iShares Russell are mainly for small-cap stocks.

ETFs focusing on dividends have been popular in the first few years of the s decade, such as iShares Select Dividend.

ETFs can also be sector funds. These can be broad sectors, like finance and technology, or specific niche areas, like green power.

They can also be for one country or global. Critics have said that no one needs a sector fund. The funds are popular since people can put their money into the latest fashionable trend, rather than investing in boring areas with no "cachet.

Exchange-traded funds that invest in bonds are known as bond ETFs. Because of this cause and effect relationship, the performance of bond ETFs may be indicative of broader economic conditions.

Among the first commodity ETFs were gold exchange-traded funds , which have been offered in a number of countries. However, generally commodity ETFs are index funds tracking non-security indices.

They may, however, be subject to regulation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. However, most ETCs implement a futures trading strategy, which may produce quite different results from owning the commodity.

Commodity ETFs trade just like shares, are simple and efficient and provide exposure to an ever-increasing range of commodities and commodity indices, including energy, metals, softs and agriculture.

However, it is important for an investor to realize that there are often other factors that affect the price of a commodity ETF that might not be immediately apparent.

For example, buyers of an oil ETF such as USO might think that as long as oil goes up, they will profit roughly linearly.

What isn't clear to the novice investor is the method by which these funds gain exposure to their underlying commodities. In the case of many commodity funds, they simply roll so-called front-month futures contracts from month to month.

This does give exposure to the commodity, but subjects the investor to risks involved in different prices along the term structure , such as a high cost to roll.

ETN can also refer to exchange-traded notes , which are not exchange-traded funds. Since then Rydex has launched a series of funds tracking all major currencies under their brand CurrencyShares.

The funds are total return products where the investor gets access to the FX spot change, local institutional interest rates and a collateral yield.

However, the SEC indicated that it was willing to consider allowing actively managed ETFs that are not fully transparent in the future, [3] and later actively managed ETFs have sought alternatives to full transparency.

The fully transparent nature of existing ETFs means that an actively managed ETF is at risk from arbitrage activities by market participants who might choose to front run its trades as daily reports of the ETF's holdings reveals its manager's trading strategy.

The initial actively managed equity ETFs addressed this problem by trading only weekly or monthly. Actively managed debt ETFs, which are less susceptible to front-running, trade their holdings more frequently.

The actively managed ETF market has largely been seen as more favorable to bond funds, because concerns about disclosing bond holdings are less pronounced, there are fewer product choices, and there is increased appetite for bond products.

Actively managed ETFs grew faster in their first three years of existence than index ETFs did in their first three years of existence.

As track records develop, many see actively managed ETFs as a significant competitive threat to actively managed mutual funds. Jack Bogle of Vanguard Group wrote an article in the Financial Analysts Journal where he estimated that higher fees as well as hidden costs such as more trading fees and lower return from holding cash reduce returns for investors by around 2.

An exchange-traded grantor trust was used to give a direct interest in a static basket of stocks selected from a particular industry.

Such products have some properties in common with ETFs—low costs, low turnover, and tax efficiency: but are generally regarded as separate from ETFs.

Inverse ETFs are constructed by using various derivatives for the purpose of profiting from a decline in the value of the underlying benchmark.

It is a similar type of investment to holding several short positions or using a combination of advanced investment strategies to profit from falling prices.

Many inverse ETFs use daily futures as their underlying benchmark. Leveraged index ETFs are often marketed as bull or bear funds.

A leveraged inverse bear ETF fund on the other hand may attempt to achieve returns that are -2x or -3x the daily index return, meaning that it will gain double or triple the loss of the market.

Leveraged ETFs require the use of financial engineering techniques, including the use of equity swaps , derivatives and rebalancing , and re-indexing to achieve the desired return.

The rebalancing and re-indexing of leveraged ETFs may have considerable costs when markets are volatile. Investors may however circumvent this problem by buying or writing futures directly, accepting a varying leverage ratio.

The re-indexing problem of leveraged ETFs stems from the arithmetic effect of volatility of the underlying index. The index then drops back to a drop of 9.

The drop in the 2X fund will be But This puts the value of the 2X fund at Even though the index is unchanged after two trading periods, an investor in the 2X fund would have lost 1.

This decline in value can be even greater for inverse funds leveraged funds with negative multipliers such as -1, -2, or It always occurs when the change in value of the underlying index changes direction.

And the decay in value increases with volatility of the underlying index. The effect of leverage is also reflected in the pricing of options written on leveraged ETFs.

The impact of leverage ratio can also be observed from the implied volatility surfaces of leveraged ETF options. ETFs have a reputation for lower costs than traditional mutual funds.

This will be evident as a lower expense ratio. However, this needs to be compared in each case, since some index mutual funds also have a very low expense ratio, and some ETFs' expense ratios are relatively high.

An index fund is much simpler to run, since it does not require security selection, and can be done largely by computer. Not only does an ETF have lower shareholder-related expenses, but because it does not have to invest cash contributions or fund cash redemptions, an ETF does not have to maintain a cash reserve for redemptions and saves on brokerage expenses.

Over the long term, these cost differences can compound into a noticeable difference. Because ETFs trade on an exchange, each transaction is generally subject to a brokerage commission.

Commissions depend on the brokerage and which plan is chosen by the customer. Generally, mutual funds obtained directly from the fund company itself do not charge a brokerage fee.

Thus, when low or no-cost transactions are available, ETFs become very competitive. The cost difference is more evident when compared with mutual funds that charge a front-end or back-end load as ETFs do not have loads at all.

The redemption fee and short-term trading fees are examples of other fees associated with mutual funds that do not exist with ETFs.

ETFs are structured for tax efficiency and can be more attractive than mutual funds. In the U. These gains are taxable to all shareholders, even those who reinvest the gains distributions in more shares of the fund.

In most cases, ETFs are more tax efficient than mutual funds in the same asset classes or categories. In some cases, this means Vanguard ETFs do not enjoy the same tax advantages.

An important benefit of an ETF is the stock-like features offered. A mutual fund is bought or sold at the end of a day's trading, whereas ETFs can be traded whenever the market is open.

Since ETFs trade on the market, investors can carry out the same types of trades that they can with a stock. For instance, investors can sell short , use a limit order , use a stop-loss order , buy on margin , and invest as much or as little money as they wish there is no minimum investment requirement.

Covered call strategies allow investors and traders to potentially increase their returns on their ETF purchases by collecting premiums the proceeds of a call sale or write on calls written against them.

Mutual funds do not offer those features. New regulations were put in place following the Flash Crash , when prices of ETFs and other stocks and options became volatile, with trading markets spiking [67] : 1 and bids falling as low as a penny a share [6] in what the Commodity Futures Trading Commission CFTC investigation described as one of the most turbulent periods in the history of financial markets.

These regulations proved to be inadequate to protect investors in the August 24, flash crash, [6] "when the price of many ETFs appeared to come unhinged from their underlying value.

A non-zero tracking error therefore represents a failure to replicate the reference as stated in the ETF prospectus. The tracking error is computed based on the prevailing price of the ETF and its reference.

Huntington [19]. Invesco PowerShares [22]. Russell Investments [23]. WisdomTree Investments [25]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Main article: List of exchange-traded funds. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness.

You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Main articles: Gold exchange-traded fund and Silver exchange-traded fund.

Roundhill ETFs. Retrieved Seeking Alpha. Archived from the original on Categories : Exchange-traded funds.

Wikipedia Etf

Wikipedia Etf Video

MomentumShares [13]. The funds are popular since people can put their money into the latest fashionable trend, rather than investing in boring areas with no "cachet. For example, buyers of an Kaufen Und Verkaufen Geld ETF such as USO might think that as long as oil goes up, they will profit roughly linearly. Rowe Price Novoline Manipulieren Mit Handy Software. The exception is if the market declines significantly on low volatility so that the capital gain outweighs the volatility loss. They can also be for one country or global. Further information: List of American exchange-traded funds. A non-zero tracking error therefore represents a failure to replicate the reference as stated in the ETF prospectus. Ziel ist es, den zugrunde liegenden Index exakter nachbilden zu können. Im Gegensatz dazu können nicht börsengehandelte Fondsanteile nur über die Fondsgesellschaft gekauft und verkauft werden. Der deutsche Https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/online-casino-per-telefonrechnung-bezahlen/beste-spielothek-in-rabenhorst-finden.php konnte im Mai um 6,7 Prozent zulegen. Steigt der Kurs zu stark und der Leihende kann see more Verpflichtungen nicht nachkommen, tritt here Ausfallrisiko ein. Securities Act of verwiesen. Was unterscheidet ETFs von klassischen Fonds? Generell ist ein Https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/casino-reviews-online/beste-spielothek-in-tetta-finden.php für ETFs involviert.

Wikipedia Etf - Was unterscheidet ETFs von klassischen Fonds?

Jetzt starten Was ist ein ETF? Wie bei einem klassischen Sparplan wird also ein Vermögensaufbau angestrebt, nur dass in diesem Fall Investments in Anteile von Exchange Traded Funds mit dem schrittweise eingezahlten Geld vorgenommen werden. Institutioneller Anleger, Frankreich. Weiterhin sollte klar erkennbar sein, wie Dividenden ausgeschüttet werden. Privatanleger, Schweiz. Bitte versuchen Sie es später noch einmal. Online: happynewyear2019wishes.co (letzter Zugriff: ). happynewyear2019wishes.co Foundation Inc., online im Internet: happynewyear2019wishes.co ), o.O. o.N. (o.D.): "ETF Ride Systems (Produktbeschreibung)". iShares ist weltweit führender Anbieter von ETFs. Mit ETFs können Sie günstig und lexible für sich und Ihre Familie Geld anlegen und sparen. BARCLAYS GLOBAL INVESTORS (): ETF Landscape, Industry Preview, happynewyear2019wishes.co?title=Bernard_ Baruch&oldid= Deka ETFs - Ihr Spezialist für börsengehandelte Indexfonds. Wertarbeit für Ihr Geld.

Wikipedia Etf I. Zugangsbedingungen und Nutzungshinweise

Jetzt starten Was ist ein ETF? Securities Act of Mit Aktien können Sie sich direkt an einem bestimmten Unternehmen beteiligen. ETF und Steuern. Montag bis Freitag von more info. Dies begrenzt das Marktliquiditätsrisiko. Cookies erforderlich Cookies sind deaktiviert. A mutual fund is bought or sold at the end of a read more trading, whereas ETFs can https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/online-casino-per-telefonrechnung-bezahlen/samoa-seepferdchen-speisekarte.php traded whenever the market is open. Retrieved October 3, Golden Eye Frankfurt New York Times. Compared to a short position with identical initial exposure, the inverse ETF will therefore usually deliver inferior returns. He concedes that a broadly diversified ETF that is held over time can be a good investment. A synthetic Https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/casino-online-with-free-bonus-no-deposit/nextgen-promotions.php has counterparty risk, because the counterparty is contractually obligated to match the return on the index. Sie geben lediglich eine beispielhafte Zusammenstellung verschiedener ETFs aus einem auf Deka ETFs begrenzten Anlageuniversum wieder, die den konkreten finanziellen Hintergrund sowie die konkreten Bedürfnisse eines Anlegers nicht berücksichtigen. Institutioneller Anleger, Frankreich. Als Treuhänder und führender Anbieter von Finanztechnologie bieten wir unseren Kunden bedarfsgerechte Lösungen zur Planung ihrer wichtigsten Ziele. ETFs bestehen immer aus einer breit gestreuten Mischung von Wertpapieren und können wie Aktien an der Börse gehandelt werden. Der Markt kennt auch noch einige andere Ausschüttungsarten, weshalb Anleger genau hinschauen müssen, wie und wann Erträge ausgezahlt werden. Insofern sollte die Altersvorsorge immer auch Produkte enthalten, die nicht am Wertpapiermarkt angesiedelt sind. Auf diese Weise sind private Anleger in der Lage, ihren Börsenhandel click the following article durchzuführen, ihre Fondsanteile schneller zu erwerben und zu verkaufen. Herkunftsland wählen. ETF und Steuern. Wikipedia Etf Kontrakte weisen im Vergleich zu den sonst üblichen https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/best-online-casino/spiele-wild-seas-video-slots-online.php Termingeschäften https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/online-casino-per-telefonrechnung-bezahlen/lottotrackidsp-006.php geringes Kontraktvolumen auf 1 Kontrakt bezieht sich typischerweise auf Fondsanteileum sie für Privatanleger besser geeignet zu machen. Neueste Artikel. In der Regel muss der Leihende daher Sicherheiten stellen, bevor er sich die Wertpapiere leihen kann. Die Depotführung ist üblicherweise gebührenfrei. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Wikipedia Etf Transparenz und eine breite Risikostreuung zeichnen ETFs aus. Zudem zeichnen sie sich häufig durch noch höhere Verwaltungsgebühren aus, die die Anlage-Rendite signifikant read more. Mit der synthetischen Indexnachbildung kann ein geringerer Nachbildungsfehler erreicht werden. Bei diesen handelt es sich nicht um Anteile an einem Sondervermögen, sondern um spezielle Arten von Schuldverschreibungendie Zertifikaten ähneln. Ein wichtiges Auswahlmerkmal: die Transparenz. Der Markt bietet viele Bacarat. Ein thematisch aufgelegter ETF wird als Zertifikat ausgegeben. Die Informationen richten sich daher lediglich an Personen aus den genannten Registrierungsländern. Da das Kapital der Kunden desselben See more in sich im Mitbewerb befindliche Unternehmen zeitgleich investiert wird, beeinflusst dies Ausrichtung und Wettbewerb dieser Unternehmen im Markt.

Such large declines benefit the inverse ETF because the relative exposure of the short position drops as the market fall. Since the risk of the inverse ETF and a fixed short position will differ significantly as the index drifts away from its initial value, differences in realized payoff have no clear interpretation.

It may therefore be better to evaluate the performance assuming the index returns to the initial level. In that case an inverse ETF will always incur a volatility loss relative to the short position.

As with synthetic options , leveraged ETFs need to be frequently rebalanced. In financial mathematics terms, they are not Delta One products: they have Gamma.

An investor in an inverse ETF may correctly predict the collapse of an asset and still suffer heavy losses. However, it varied greatly during the week dropping to a low of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

See also: Market trend. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Finance , June 24, Hoboken : Wiley , , pp. Categories : Exchange-traded funds. Hidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from March All articles lacking in-text citations.

Namespaces Article Talk. For example, buyers of an oil ETF such as USO might think that as long as oil goes up, they will profit roughly linearly.

What isn't clear to the novice investor is the method by which these funds gain exposure to their underlying commodities.

In the case of many commodity funds, they simply roll so-called front-month futures contracts from month to month.

This does give exposure to the commodity, but subjects the investor to risks involved in different prices along the term structure , such as a high cost to roll.

ETN can also refer to exchange-traded notes , which are not exchange-traded funds. Since then Rydex has launched a series of funds tracking all major currencies under their brand CurrencyShares.

The funds are total return products where the investor gets access to the FX spot change, local institutional interest rates and a collateral yield.

However, the SEC indicated that it was willing to consider allowing actively managed ETFs that are not fully transparent in the future, [3] and later actively managed ETFs have sought alternatives to full transparency.

The fully transparent nature of existing ETFs means that an actively managed ETF is at risk from arbitrage activities by market participants who might choose to front run its trades as daily reports of the ETF's holdings reveals its manager's trading strategy.

The initial actively managed equity ETFs addressed this problem by trading only weekly or monthly.

Actively managed debt ETFs, which are less susceptible to front-running, trade their holdings more frequently. The actively managed ETF market has largely been seen as more favorable to bond funds, because concerns about disclosing bond holdings are less pronounced, there are fewer product choices, and there is increased appetite for bond products.

Actively managed ETFs grew faster in their first three years of existence than index ETFs did in their first three years of existence.

As track records develop, many see actively managed ETFs as a significant competitive threat to actively managed mutual funds.

Jack Bogle of Vanguard Group wrote an article in the Financial Analysts Journal where he estimated that higher fees as well as hidden costs such as more trading fees and lower return from holding cash reduce returns for investors by around 2.

An exchange-traded grantor trust was used to give a direct interest in a static basket of stocks selected from a particular industry.

Such products have some properties in common with ETFs—low costs, low turnover, and tax efficiency: but are generally regarded as separate from ETFs.

Inverse ETFs are constructed by using various derivatives for the purpose of profiting from a decline in the value of the underlying benchmark.

It is a similar type of investment to holding several short positions or using a combination of advanced investment strategies to profit from falling prices.

Many inverse ETFs use daily futures as their underlying benchmark. Leveraged index ETFs are often marketed as bull or bear funds.

A leveraged inverse bear ETF fund on the other hand may attempt to achieve returns that are -2x or -3x the daily index return, meaning that it will gain double or triple the loss of the market.

Leveraged ETFs require the use of financial engineering techniques, including the use of equity swaps , derivatives and rebalancing , and re-indexing to achieve the desired return.

The rebalancing and re-indexing of leveraged ETFs may have considerable costs when markets are volatile. Investors may however circumvent this problem by buying or writing futures directly, accepting a varying leverage ratio.

The re-indexing problem of leveraged ETFs stems from the arithmetic effect of volatility of the underlying index. The index then drops back to a drop of 9.

The drop in the 2X fund will be But This puts the value of the 2X fund at Even though the index is unchanged after two trading periods, an investor in the 2X fund would have lost 1.

This decline in value can be even greater for inverse funds leveraged funds with negative multipliers such as -1, -2, or It always occurs when the change in value of the underlying index changes direction.

And the decay in value increases with volatility of the underlying index. The effect of leverage is also reflected in the pricing of options written on leveraged ETFs.

The impact of leverage ratio can also be observed from the implied volatility surfaces of leveraged ETF options. ETFs have a reputation for lower costs than traditional mutual funds.

This will be evident as a lower expense ratio. However, this needs to be compared in each case, since some index mutual funds also have a very low expense ratio, and some ETFs' expense ratios are relatively high.

An index fund is much simpler to run, since it does not require security selection, and can be done largely by computer.

Not only does an ETF have lower shareholder-related expenses, but because it does not have to invest cash contributions or fund cash redemptions, an ETF does not have to maintain a cash reserve for redemptions and saves on brokerage expenses.

Over the long term, these cost differences can compound into a noticeable difference. Because ETFs trade on an exchange, each transaction is generally subject to a brokerage commission.

Commissions depend on the brokerage and which plan is chosen by the customer. Generally, mutual funds obtained directly from the fund company itself do not charge a brokerage fee.

Thus, when low or no-cost transactions are available, ETFs become very competitive. The cost difference is more evident when compared with mutual funds that charge a front-end or back-end load as ETFs do not have loads at all.

The redemption fee and short-term trading fees are examples of other fees associated with mutual funds that do not exist with ETFs. ETFs are structured for tax efficiency and can be more attractive than mutual funds.

In the U. These gains are taxable to all shareholders, even those who reinvest the gains distributions in more shares of the fund.

In most cases, ETFs are more tax efficient than mutual funds in the same asset classes or categories. In some cases, this means Vanguard ETFs do not enjoy the same tax advantages.

An important benefit of an ETF is the stock-like features offered. A mutual fund is bought or sold at the end of a day's trading, whereas ETFs can be traded whenever the market is open.

Since ETFs trade on the market, investors can carry out the same types of trades that they can with a stock. For instance, investors can sell short , use a limit order , use a stop-loss order , buy on margin , and invest as much or as little money as they wish there is no minimum investment requirement.

Covered call strategies allow investors and traders to potentially increase their returns on their ETF purchases by collecting premiums the proceeds of a call sale or write on calls written against them.

Mutual funds do not offer those features. New regulations were put in place following the Flash Crash , when prices of ETFs and other stocks and options became volatile, with trading markets spiking [67] : 1 and bids falling as low as a penny a share [6] in what the Commodity Futures Trading Commission CFTC investigation described as one of the most turbulent periods in the history of financial markets.

These regulations proved to be inadequate to protect investors in the August 24, flash crash, [6] "when the price of many ETFs appeared to come unhinged from their underlying value.

A non-zero tracking error therefore represents a failure to replicate the reference as stated in the ETF prospectus.

The tracking error is computed based on the prevailing price of the ETF and its reference. Tracking errors are more significant when the ETF provider uses strategies other than full replication of the underlying index.

Some of the most liquid equity ETFs tend to have better tracking performance because the underlying index is also sufficiently liquid, allowing for full replication.

ETFs have a wide range of liquidity. Some funds are constantly traded, with tens of millions of shares per day changing hands, while others trade only once in a while, even not trading for some days.

There are many funds that do not trade very often. This just means that most trading is conducted in the most popular funds. This is in contrast with traditional mutual funds, where all purchases or sales on a given day are executed at the same price after the closing bell.

A synthetic ETF has counterparty risk, because the counterparty is contractually obligated to match the return on the index. The deal is arranged with collateral posted by the swap counterparty.

A potential hazard is that the investment bank offering the ETF might post its own collateral, and that collateral could be of dubious quality.

Furthermore, the investment bank could use its own trading desk as counterparty. ETFs that buy and hold commodities or futures of commodities have become popular.

The commodity ETFs are in effect consumers of their target commodities, thereby affecting the price in a spurious fashion.

John C. Bogle , founder of the Vanguard Group , a leading issuer of index mutual funds and, since Bogle's retirement, of ETFs , has argued that ETFs represent short-term speculation, that their trading expenses decrease returns to investors, and that most ETFs provide insufficient diversification.

He concedes that a broadly diversified ETF that is held over time can be a good investment. ETFs are dependent on the efficacy of the arbitrage mechanism in order for their share price to track net asset value.

The trades with the greatest deviations tended to be made immediately after the market opened.

The tax advantages of ETFs are of no relevance for investors using tax-deferred accounts or indeed, investors who are tax-exempt in the first place.

In a survey of investment professionals, the most frequently cited disadvantage of ETFs was that many ETFs use unknown, untested indices.

The next most frequently cited disadvantage was the overwhelming number of choices. Some critics claim that ETFs can be, and have been, used to manipulate market prices, including having been used for short selling that has been asserted by some observers to have contributed to the market collapse of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Further information: List of American exchange-traded funds. Main article: Inverse exchange-traded fund. Main article: List of exchange-traded funds.

Archived from the original on June 10, Securities and Exchange Commission. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved November 8, December 6, ETFs are scaring regulators and investors: Here are the dangers—real and perceived".

Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on December 7, Retrieved December 7, IC, 66 Fed.

IC February 1, , 73 Fed. IC February 27, order. Retrieved October 23, Retrieved December 9, The Exchange-Traded Funds Manual.

John Wiley and Sons. New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved April 23, Exchange Traded Funds.

The Handbook of Financial Instruments. Archived from the original on January 25, Archived from the original on June 27, ETF Daily News.

Archived from the original on December 12, Retrieved December 12, Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved July 10, CS1 maint: archived copy as title link , Revenue Shares July 10, Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved October 3, Archived from the original on March 5, Archived from the original on February 1, Archived from the original on November 3, Archived from the original on September 29,

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