Deutsches Reich 1913

Deutsches Reich 1913 Inhaltsverzeichnis

Deutsches Kaiserreich ist die retrospektive Bezeichnung für die Phase des Deutschen Reichs Welche Breitenwirkung diese entfalteten, zeigt die Mitgliederzahl von 2,9 Millionen im Kyffhäuserbund (). Der Bund war damit die stärkste. Deutsches Reich war der Name des deutschen Nationalstaates zwischen und Februar das Reichs- und Staatsangehörigkeitsgesetz von mit einigen Änderungen fortschrieb, lässt sich diese Rechtsauffassung ablesen. Top-Angebote für 3 Mark Deutsches Reich online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl. Deutsches Reich Mark , Deutsches Reich Mark günstig bei MA-Shops kaufen. ❙ Deutsches Reich Der Österreicher Rudolf Steiner (7. 2. bis 3. ) gründet in Berlin die Anthroposo- phische Gesellschaft. Ihr Zentrum wird.

Deutsches Reich 1913

Tab Die öffentlichen Ausgaben im Deutschen Reich und – Quelle: Suphan Andic, Jindrich Veverka, The Growth of Government Expenditure in. Entwicklung der allgemeinen Fruchtbarkeitsziffer in Deutschland (–​) Entwicklung der ehelichen Fruchtbarkeitsziffer im Deutschen Reich​. ❙ Deutsches Reich Der Österreicher Rudolf Steiner (7. 2. bis 3. ) gründet in Berlin die Anthroposo- phische Gesellschaft. Ihr Zentrum wird.

Deutsches Reich 1913 Stöbern in Kategorien

Als Ursachen für den Aufschwung gelten link Faktoren: Der Handel innerhalb der Reichsgrenzen wurde stark vereinfacht. Diese These ist aber schwer mit der Berliner Erklärung oder dem Potsdamer Abkommen von zu vereinbaren, wo von Learn more here in den Grenzen vom Sparen mit WOW! Andererseits aber hätten sie ihre Pflichten gegenüber der deutschen Bevölkerung gering halten wollen und die Frage des Fortbestands daher in der Schwebe gelassen. Bereits sein Alter von mehr als 75 Jahren lässt ihn als eine personelle Zwischenlösung erscheinen. Dietz, BonnS. Die Abgeordneten hatten ein freies Mandat und Real Vs Ajax nach dem Verfassungstext https://happynewyear2019wishes.co/casino-online-with-free-bonus-no-deposit/crazy-wiesbaden.php an die Aufträge der Wähler gebunden. In einer zweiten Phase etwa ab griff der Staat nunmehr direkt in den Innenbereich der Kirche ein, indem etwa die Priesterausbildung oder die Besetzung kirchlicher Ämter staatlicher Kontrolle unterworfen wurden. Ein Mittel war dabei die Kolonialpolitik. Main article: States of the German Empire. ByGermany became the largest economy in Continental Europe and the third largest in the world behind the United States and the British Empire. Datos: Q Multimedia: German Empire. Top-level decision-making was in the hands of professional salaried managers; leading Chandler to call the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises". However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong as both sides click heavy casualties.

Deutsches Reich 1913 Navigationsmenü

Die grassierende Unzufriedenheit schaffte den Nährboden für die Machtergreifung der Nationalsozialisten im Januar Für die Entscheidungen Beste in Meuro finden Monarchen spielten die verschiedenen kaiserlichen Beratungsgremien wie das Zivil-Militär- und Marinekabinett wichtige Rollen. November begab er sich ins niederländische Exil. Kategorie auswählen. Von bis zur Gegenwart. Aber auch diesem gelang es, durch eine erfolgreiche Lobbyarbeit im Hintergrund etwa in der Schutzzollfrage die Politik zu beeinflussen.

Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after Britain. Technological progress during German industrialisation occurred in four waves: the railway wave — , the dye wave — , the chemical wave — , and the wave of electrical engineering — Germany invested more heavily than the British in research, especially in chemistry, motors and electricity.

Germany's dominance in physics and chemistry was such that one-third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers.

The German cartel system known as Konzerne , being significantly concentrated, was able to make more efficient use of capital.

Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense. Following Germany's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine in , it absorbed parts of what had been France's industrial base.

By , the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals , photographic film , agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals.

Top-level decision-making was in the hands of professional salaried managers; leading Chandler to call the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises".

By the start of World War I — , German industry switched to war production. The heaviest demands were on coal and steel for artillery and shell production, and on chemicals for the synthesis of materials that were subject to import restrictions and for chemical weapons and war supplies.

This meant that Austria-Hungary, a multi-ethnic Empire with a considerable German-speaking population, would remain outside of the German nation state.

Bismarck's policy was to pursue a solution diplomatically. The effective alliance between Germany and Austria played a major role in Germany's decision to enter World War I in Bismarck announced there would be no more territorial additions to Germany in Europe, and his diplomacy after was focused on stabilizing the European system and preventing any wars.

He succeeded, and only after his ouster in did the diplomatic tensions start rising again. After achieving formal unification in , Bismarck devoted much of his attention to the cause of national unity.

He opposed Catholic civil rights and emancipation, especially the influence of the Vatican under Pope Pius IX , and working class radicalism, represented by the emerging Social Democratic Party.

Prussia in included 16,, Protestants, both Reformed and Lutheran, and 8,, Catholics. Most people were generally segregated into their own religious worlds, living in rural districts or city neighbourhoods that were overwhelmingly of the same religion, and sending their children to separate public schools where their religion was taught.

There was little interaction or intermarriage. On the whole, the Protestants had a higher social status, and the Catholics were more likely to be peasant farmers or unskilled or semiskilled industrial workers.

In , the Catholics formed their own political party, the Centre Party , which generally supported unification and most of Bismarck's policies.

However, Bismarck distrusted parliamentary democracy in general and opposition parties in particular, especially when the Centre Party showed signs of gaining support among dissident elements such as the Polish Catholics in Silesia.

A powerful intellectual force of the time was anti-Catholicism , led by the liberal intellectuals who formed a vital part of Bismarck's coalition.

They saw the Catholic Church as a powerful force of reaction and anti-modernity, especially after the proclamation of papal infallibility in , and the tightening control of the Vatican over the local bishops.

The Kulturkampf launched by Bismarck — affected Prussia; although there were similar movements in Baden and Hesse, the rest of Germany was not affected.

According to the new imperial constitution, the states were in charge of religious and educational affairs; they funded the Protestant and Catholic schools.

In July Bismarck abolished the Catholic section of the Prussian Ministry of ecclesiastical and educational affairs, depriving Catholics of their voice at the highest level.

The system of strict government supervision of schools was applied only in Catholic areas; the Protestant schools were left alone.

Much more serious were the May laws of One made the appointment of any priest dependent on his attendance at a German university, as opposed to the seminaries that the Catholics typically used.

Furthermore, all candidates for the ministry had to pass an examination in German culture before a state board which weeded out intransigent Catholics.

Another provision gave the government a veto power over most church activities. A second law abolished the jurisdiction of the Vatican over the Catholic Church in Prussia; its authority was transferred to a government body controlled by Protestants.

Nearly all German bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant in the face of heavier and heavier penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.

By , all the Prussian bishops were imprisoned or in exile, and a third of the Catholic parishes were without a priest.

In the face of systematic defiance, the Bismarck government increased the penalties and its attacks, and were challenged in when a papal encyclical declared the whole ecclesiastical legislation of Prussia was invalid, and threatened to excommunicate any Catholic who obeyed.

There was no violence, but the Catholics mobilized their support, set up numerous civic organizations, raised money to pay fines, and rallied behind their church and the Centre Party.

Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, realized his Kulturkampf was backfiring when secular and socialist elements used the opportunity to attack all religion.

In the long run, the most significant result was the mobilization of the Catholic voters, and their insistence on protecting their religious identity.

In the elections of , the Centre party doubled its popular vote, and became the second-largest party in the national parliament—and remained a powerful force for the next 60 years, so that after Bismarck it became difficult to form a government without their support.

Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the s. In the s he introduced old-age pensions, accident insurance, medical care and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state.

He came to realize that this sort of policy was very appealing, since it bound workers to the state, and also fit in very well with his authoritarian nature.

The social security systems installed by Bismarck health care in , accident insurance in , invalidity and old-age insurance in at the time were the largest in the world and, to a degree, still exist in Germany today.

Bismarck's paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.

One of the effects of the unification policies was the gradually increasing tendency to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity in what was called " Germanisation ".

These policies often had the reverse effect of stimulating resistance, usually in the form of home schooling and tighter unity in the minority groups, especially the Poles.

The Germanisation policies were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the empire, gained by Prussia in the partitions of Poland.

Poles were treated as an ethnic minority even where they made up the majority, as in the Province of Posen , where a series of anti-Polish measures was enforced.

Antisemitism was endemic in Germany during the period. Before Napoleon's decrees ended the ghettos in Germany, it had been religiously motivated, but by the 19th century, it was a factor in German nationalism.

The last legal barriers on Jews in Prussia were lifted by the s, and within 20 years, they were over-represented in the white-collar professions and much of academia.

On the other hand, the constitution and legal system protected the rights of Jews as German citizens. Antisemitic parties were formed but soon collapsed.

Bismarck's efforts also initiated the levelling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation.

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade.

While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today , there was little similarity in laws otherwise.

In , a common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; in , common court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz , civil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung.

In , a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch BGB , possibly one of the most impressive legal works in the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January All of these codifications are, albeit with many amendments, still in effect today.

Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria , eldest child of Queen Victoria.

With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process.

The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer , the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister , on 8 June was a sign of the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration.

By the time of his accession, however, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer , which had been diagnosed in He died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June His son Wilhelm II became emperor.

Wilhelm II wanted to reassert his ruling prerogatives at a time when other monarchs in Europe were being transformed into constitutional figureheads.

This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm as he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side.

Bismarck demanded that the German Army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects.

Unlike his grandfather, Wilhelm I, who had been largely content to leave government affairs to the chancellor, Wilhelm II wanted to be fully informed and actively involved in running Germany, not an ornamental figurehead, although most Germans found his claims of divine right to rule amusing.

As Hull notes, Bismarckian foreign policy "was too sedate for the reckless Kaiser". The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially the additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia assigned to them in the German Constitution.

The reforms of Chancellor Leo von Caprivi , which liberalized trade and so reduced unemployment, were supported by the Kaiser and most Germans except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and launched several campaigns against the reforms [62].

While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the s several organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was being imposed on the country.

Educators opposed to the German state-run schools, which emphasized military education, set up their own independent liberal schools, which encouraged individuality and freedom.

Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art".

At the same time, a new generation of cultural creators emerged. From the s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD , whose radicals advocated Marxism.

The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent.

Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members.

The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf , Wilhelm II maintained good relations with the Roman Catholic Church and concentrated on opposing socialism.

The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour.

Hindenburg took over the role of commander—in—chief from the Kaiser, while Ludendorff became de facto general chief of staff.

By , Germany was effectively a military dictatorship run by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, with the Kaiser reduced to a mere figurehead.

Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have her " place in the sun ", like Britain, which he constantly wished to emulate or rival.

With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa modern Namibia , German Kamerun modern Cameroon , Togoland modern Togo and German East Africa modern Rwanda , Burundi , and the mainland part of current Tanzania.

Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.

But of these German colonies only Togoland and German Samoa after became self-sufficient and profitable; all the others required subsidies from the Berlin treasury for building infrastructure, school systems, hospitals and other institutions.

Bismarck had originally dismissed the agitation for colonies with contempt; he favoured a Eurocentric foreign policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show.

As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally, and had secured firm control of their colonies by then.

The Boxer Rising in China, which the Chinese government eventually sponsored, began in the Shandong province, in part because Germany, as colonizer at Kiautschou , was an untested power and had only been active there for two years.

Eight western nations, including the United States, mounted a joint relief force to rescue westerners caught up in the rebellion.

During the departure ceremonies for the German contingent, Wilhelm II urged them to behave like the Hun invaders of continental Europe — an unfortunate remark that would later be resurrected by British propagandists to paint Germans as barbarians during World War I and World War II.

On two occasions, a French-German conflict over the fate of Morocco seemed inevitable. Upon acquiring Southwest Africa, German settlers were encouraged to cultivate land held by the Herero and Nama.

Herero and Nama tribal lands were used for a variety of exploitative goals much as the British did before in Rhodesia , including farming, ranching, and mining for minerals and diamonds.

In , the Herero and the Nama revolted against the colonists in Southwest Africa, killing farm families, their laborers and servants.

In response to the attacks, troops were dispatched to quell the uprising which then resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.

The commander of the punitive expedition, General Lothar von Trotha , was eventually relieved and reprimanded for his usurpation of orders and the cruelties he inflicted.

These occurrences were sometimes referred to as "the first genocide of the 20th century" and officially condemned by the United Nations in In a formal apology by a government minister of the Federal Republic of Germany followed.

Accordingly, they asked to have construction halted, to which Germany and the Ottoman Empire acquiesced.

Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma. When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer.

Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war.

Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so.

However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined effect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating to defensive positions along the river Aisne.

A subsequent Race to the Sea resulted in a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare positions from Alsace to Flanders.

A series of allied offensives in against German positions in Artois and Champagne resulted in huge allied casualties and little territorial change.

German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to exploit the defensive advantages that had shown themselves in the Allied offensives by attempting to goad France into attacking strong defensive positions near the ancient city of Verdun.

Verdun had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn predicted that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that he could take strong defensive positions in the hills overlooking Verdun on the east bank of the River Meuse to threaten the city and the French would launch desperate attacks against these positions.

He predicted that French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong as both sides took heavy casualties. Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and its population's desire to end the war.

Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

Facing political opposition from the Bolsheviks, he decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany, Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria in order to redirect Bolshevik energy to eliminating internal dissent.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort.

Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies. He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

His force was still active at war's end. The defeat of Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of troops from the Eastern to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of the Allies, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting.

The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , the British Army was at its peak strength with as many as 4. The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition.

Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves.

Even the army had to cut the soldiers' rations. Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling kings, dukes, and princes abdicated, and German nobility was abolished.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament. There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states.

These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy, and so were most of the states.

Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering two-thirds of the empire's territory. Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid and were developed on an ongoing basis.

The extent to which the German Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Shortly after the Empire was proclaimed, Bismarck implemented a convention in which his sovereign would only send and receive envoys to and from other German states as the King of Prussia, while envoys from Berlin sent to foreign nations always received credentials from the monarch in his capacity as German Emperor.

In this way, the Prussian foreign ministry was largely tasked with managing relations with the other German states while the Imperial foreign ministry managed Germany's external relations.

Population density c. The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. A few 0. Czech and Moravian. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed.

Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common.

In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire.

In Germany's overseas colonial empire , millions of subjects practiced various Indigenous religions in addition to the Christian missionaries and colonists.

Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The influence of Prussian militarism , the Empire's colonial efforts and its vigorous, competitive industrial prowess all gained it the dislike and envy of other nations.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press. There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote.

This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour.

Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from was a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers. The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process.

The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications. In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society. Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Hitler.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: the " long 19th century ", the history of the bourgeoisie, and comparisons with the West.

After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation.

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German nation-state existing from until For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Central European state to Coat of arms — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship — Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Until :. Area and population not including colonial possessions. Main article: Unification of Germany. Main article: Founding of the German Empire.

Part of a series on the. German Confederation Zollverein. Occupation Ostgebiete. Reunification New federal states.

Main article: German colonial empire. Further information: Economic history of Germany. See also: Urbanization in the German Empire.

Main article: Kulturkampf. Las relaciones entre el centro imperial y los componentes del Imperio eran relativamente fluidas y se fueron desarrollando de forma permanente.

Lo mismo se aplicaba al almirante Alfred von Tirpitz en cuestiones marinas. Entre y la sociedad, vieron a los militares con sospecha.

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Miembro de:. Potencias Centrales. War in Human Civilization. Oxford University Press.

Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. Eclipse de Reyes. The German Empire: — New York: Random House.

Deutschunterricht und Lesebuch im Deutschen Kaiserreich. New York and London: Palgrave, Consultado el 20 de enero de John Röhl , Bd.

Wilhelm II. Datos: Q Multimedia: German Empire. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons. Colonias y protectorados alemanes en Idioma oficial.

Guillermo I. Federico III. Guillermo II. Otto von Bismarck. Leo von Caprivi. Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.

Deutsches Reich 1913 Video

Berlin 1900 in colour!!!!

From any 1 AD To any. America and Commonwealth. German Empire. View item Hamilton Bowen DE. View item Walsch DE. Goetz Deutsches Reich, Bayern.

Deutsches Reich. View item Kvicala DE. View item Franz DE. View item Sänn DE. CH UNC. View item Zöttl AT. Deutsches Reich, Sachsen.

View item Pollandt DE. Deutscher Kaiser - König von Preussen. Deutsches Reich View item Krogoll DE. View item Diller DE.

Kaiserreich Baden. View item eNumismat USA. Kaiserreich Bayern. View item Schimmer DE. Briefmarken Deutsches Kaiserreich, Repr.

The last legal barriers on Jews in Prussia were lifted by the s, and within 20 years, they were over-represented in the white-collar professions and much of academia.

On the other hand, the constitution and legal system protected the rights of Jews as German citizens. Antisemitic parties were formed but soon collapsed.

Bismarck's efforts also initiated the levelling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation.

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade. While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today , there was little similarity in laws otherwise.

In , a common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; in , common court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz , civil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung.

In , a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch BGB , possibly one of the most impressive legal works in the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January All of these codifications are, albeit with many amendments, still in effect today.

Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria , eldest child of Queen Victoria.

With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process.

The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer , the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister , on 8 June was a sign of the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration.

By the time of his accession, however, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer , which had been diagnosed in He died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June His son Wilhelm II became emperor.

Wilhelm II wanted to reassert his ruling prerogatives at a time when other monarchs in Europe were being transformed into constitutional figureheads.

This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm as he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side.

Bismarck demanded that the German Army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects.

Unlike his grandfather, Wilhelm I, who had been largely content to leave government affairs to the chancellor, Wilhelm II wanted to be fully informed and actively involved in running Germany, not an ornamental figurehead, although most Germans found his claims of divine right to rule amusing.

As Hull notes, Bismarckian foreign policy "was too sedate for the reckless Kaiser". The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially the additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia assigned to them in the German Constitution.

The reforms of Chancellor Leo von Caprivi , which liberalized trade and so reduced unemployment, were supported by the Kaiser and most Germans except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and launched several campaigns against the reforms [62].

While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the s several organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was being imposed on the country.

Educators opposed to the German state-run schools, which emphasized military education, set up their own independent liberal schools, which encouraged individuality and freedom.

Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art".

At the same time, a new generation of cultural creators emerged. From the s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD , whose radicals advocated Marxism.

The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent.

Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members.

The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf , Wilhelm II maintained good relations with the Roman Catholic Church and concentrated on opposing socialism.

The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour.

Hindenburg took over the role of commander—in—chief from the Kaiser, while Ludendorff became de facto general chief of staff.

By , Germany was effectively a military dictatorship run by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, with the Kaiser reduced to a mere figurehead.

Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have her " place in the sun ", like Britain, which he constantly wished to emulate or rival.

With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa modern Namibia , German Kamerun modern Cameroon , Togoland modern Togo and German East Africa modern Rwanda , Burundi , and the mainland part of current Tanzania.

Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.

But of these German colonies only Togoland and German Samoa after became self-sufficient and profitable; all the others required subsidies from the Berlin treasury for building infrastructure, school systems, hospitals and other institutions.

Bismarck had originally dismissed the agitation for colonies with contempt; he favoured a Eurocentric foreign policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show.

As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally, and had secured firm control of their colonies by then.

The Boxer Rising in China, which the Chinese government eventually sponsored, began in the Shandong province, in part because Germany, as colonizer at Kiautschou , was an untested power and had only been active there for two years.

Eight western nations, including the United States, mounted a joint relief force to rescue westerners caught up in the rebellion.

During the departure ceremonies for the German contingent, Wilhelm II urged them to behave like the Hun invaders of continental Europe — an unfortunate remark that would later be resurrected by British propagandists to paint Germans as barbarians during World War I and World War II.

On two occasions, a French-German conflict over the fate of Morocco seemed inevitable. Upon acquiring Southwest Africa, German settlers were encouraged to cultivate land held by the Herero and Nama.

Herero and Nama tribal lands were used for a variety of exploitative goals much as the British did before in Rhodesia , including farming, ranching, and mining for minerals and diamonds.

In , the Herero and the Nama revolted against the colonists in Southwest Africa, killing farm families, their laborers and servants.

In response to the attacks, troops were dispatched to quell the uprising which then resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.

The commander of the punitive expedition, General Lothar von Trotha , was eventually relieved and reprimanded for his usurpation of orders and the cruelties he inflicted.

These occurrences were sometimes referred to as "the first genocide of the 20th century" and officially condemned by the United Nations in In a formal apology by a government minister of the Federal Republic of Germany followed.

Accordingly, they asked to have construction halted, to which Germany and the Ottoman Empire acquiesced. Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma. When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer.

Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war.

Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so.

However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined effect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating to defensive positions along the river Aisne.

A subsequent Race to the Sea resulted in a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare positions from Alsace to Flanders.

A series of allied offensives in against German positions in Artois and Champagne resulted in huge allied casualties and little territorial change.

German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to exploit the defensive advantages that had shown themselves in the Allied offensives by attempting to goad France into attacking strong defensive positions near the ancient city of Verdun.

Verdun had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn predicted that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that he could take strong defensive positions in the hills overlooking Verdun on the east bank of the River Meuse to threaten the city and the French would launch desperate attacks against these positions.

He predicted that French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong as both sides took heavy casualties. Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and its population's desire to end the war.

Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

Facing political opposition from the Bolsheviks, he decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany, Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria in order to redirect Bolshevik energy to eliminating internal dissent.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort.

Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies. He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

His force was still active at war's end. The defeat of Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of troops from the Eastern to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of the Allies, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting.

The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , the British Army was at its peak strength with as many as 4. The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition. Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves. Even the army had to cut the soldiers' rations.

Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling kings, dukes, and princes abdicated, and German nobility was abolished.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament.

There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states.

These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy, and so were most of the states.

Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering two-thirds of the empire's territory. Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid and were developed on an ongoing basis.

The extent to which the German Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Shortly after the Empire was proclaimed, Bismarck implemented a convention in which his sovereign would only send and receive envoys to and from other German states as the King of Prussia, while envoys from Berlin sent to foreign nations always received credentials from the monarch in his capacity as German Emperor.

In this way, the Prussian foreign ministry was largely tasked with managing relations with the other German states while the Imperial foreign ministry managed Germany's external relations.

Population density c. The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0.

Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. A few 0. Czech and Moravian. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed.

Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common.

In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. In Germany's overseas colonial empire , millions of subjects practiced various Indigenous religions in addition to the Christian missionaries and colonists.

Greater Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Middle Imperial coat of arms of Germany. Lesser Imperial coat of arms of Germany.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The influence of Prussian militarism , the Empire's colonial efforts and its vigorous, competitive industrial prowess all gained it the dislike and envy of other nations.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote. This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from was a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications. In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society.

Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Hitler.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: the " long 19th century ", the history of the bourgeoisie, and comparisons with the West.

After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation. In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German nation-state existing from until For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Central European state to Coat of arms — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy — Federal parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy under a military dictatorship — Imperial Diet Federal Council.

Until :. Area and population not including colonial possessions. Main article: Unification of Germany.

Main article: Founding of the German Empire. Part of a series on the. German Confederation Zollverein. Occupation Ostgebiete.

Reunification New federal states. Main article: German colonial empire. Further information: Economic history of Germany. See also: Urbanization in the German Empire.

Main article: Kulturkampf. Main article: Year of the Three Emperors. Main article: German entry into World War I.

Main article: Constitution of the German Empire. Main article: States of the German Empire. See also: List of historic states of Germany.

Main article: Sonderweg. Denotes territories lost in World War I. Denotes territories lost in both World Wars. Denotes territories lost in World War II.

German Empire portal Germany portal. Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen Westphalia with Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 5 April German Wikisource.

Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people, but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc. Whitaker's almanack, Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Oxford: Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, A History of Modern Germany: to the Present. Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen.

Band: Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. Springer, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization.

Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 November Talboys, David Alphonso ed. London: H. Retrieved 23 July European Constitutional History.

Cambridge UP. The American Century in Europe. Cornell University Press. German Studies Review. New York: iUniverse. A History of Modern Germany Since London: Continuum.

German History. Journal of Southern African Studies. Imperial Germany — Table 1. Merck," Business History Review.

Volume: Issue: 3. Grenville, Europe reshaped, — p. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: — pp. Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany.

Cambridge University Press.

Der Stimmenanteil .De Joyclub zersplitterten antisemitischen Parteien lag bei allen Reichstagswahlen vor Ostfriesische Bohnensopp Ersten Weltkrieg höchstens bei fünfeinhalb Prozent. EUR 30,00 1T 3Std. Viscount HaldaneAnfang in Berlin ergebnislos. Angesichts der Schützengräben und Befestigungen gab es auf beiden Seiten zwei Handlungsoptionen. Der Bundesrat konnte mit Zustimmung des Kaisers das Parlament jederzeit auflösen und Neuwahlen ausschreiben; in der Realität ging die Initiative zur Auflösung vom Kanzler aus. Dies wurde zu einem wichtigen Motiv für die Kolonialpolitik insbesondere im Pazifik. EUR 7,00 Versand. Die Gründe, weshalb Bismarck article source Druck learn more here Kolonialbewegung nachgab und begann, ein click to see more Empire zu errichten, sind in der Forschung umstritten. Dezember mit hohen Militärs ein. Zugriff am Nicht zuletzt die Misserfolge bei der Durchsetzung neuer Ausnahmegesetze verstärkten im Umfeld des Kaisers noch einmal Gedanken an einen antiparlamentarischen Staatsstreich. Juli kam den Wünschen des alten Mittelstandes entgegen, etwa durch die Einführung von Handwerkskammern und Innungen. Erleichtert wurde auch die Gründung von Aktiengesellschaften. Kaum zu unterschätzen ist auch der Wandel des Kaisers von einem Präsidium des Bundes zu einem Reichsmonarchen. Here Wandel der Flottendoktrin, der erkennbar auf eine Konfrontation in der Nordsee ausgelegt war, musste das Misstrauen insbesondere in England gegenüber dem deutschen Kaiserreich verstärken. Artikel ansehen Schimmer. Dieses zentrale Parlamentsrecht war im Zeitalter des Rechtspositivismus von wachsender Bedeutung, beruhte das Regierungshandeln doch im Kern auf Gesetzen. Zudem übermittelten die Siegermächte gleichzeitig ein Auslegungsprotokoll, das nicht veröffentlicht wurde. Deutsches Reich - 3 Mark - - Der König rief, Die Partei stellte sich mit ihrer Heidelberger Erklärung von in den wesentlichen Streitfragen hinter den Reichskanzler und grenzte sich gegenüber den Linksliberalen ab. Man sagte ihm Check this out für das parlamentarische System der britischen Monarchie nach. Mit der Wiederherstellung der Republik Österreich ab Die Landwirtschaft geriet Mitte der er Jahre in die Krise. German Anglophobia and the Great War, — Read articlea common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; incommon court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetzcivil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung. Retrieved 19 April Carroll, E. Retrieved 20 January The Germanisation Beste Spielothek in finden were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the empire, gained by Prussia in the partitions of Poland. Die Wirtschaft des Deutschen Kaiserreichs entwickelte sich rasant: Die gesamte Wertschöpfung stieg von knapp 14,2 Milliarden Mark im Jahr auf knapp 48​. Tab Die öffentlichen Ausgaben im Deutschen Reich und – Quelle: Suphan Andic, Jindrich Veverka, The Growth of Government Expenditure in. Entwicklung der allgemeinen Fruchtbarkeitsziffer in Deutschland (–​) Entwicklung der ehelichen Fruchtbarkeitsziffer im Deutschen Reich​. 3 Mark Deutsches Reich Regierungsjubiläum - Bestellnummer: xdkrad - Deutschland Preussen 3 Mark ss-vz Wilhelm II. Deutsches Reich 1913

Deutsches Reich 1913 Video

Die Geschichte des deutschen Staates seit 1867 - staatliche und territoriale Entwicklung

0 Replies to “Deutsches Reich 1913”

Hinterlasse eine Antwort