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Notwendig immer aktiv. Nicht notwendig Nicht notwendig. With a nice dialogue from the Ruhr area now we end the chapter Kevinismus.
Die meisten waren gekommen und sind geblieben. Most of them came and stayed; first names like Mehmet and Mustafa can still be heard in the Ruhr area on every corner.
Nun ist es aber soweit und ich möchte mal auf die kurze Kunst im Ruhrpott hinweisen. But now it's time and I want to point your attention to the short art in the Ruhr Valley.
In der ersten Version im Faulturm mitten im Ruhrpott hat die emotionale Verdichtung noch einmal einen Widerhall in der Architektur gefunden - in dem Faulbehälter, in dem früher auch chemische Reaktionen vonstatten gegangen sind.
At a big Essen company, F. Krupp A. They were partly women, partly forced labourers. The Spartacist Uprising in , which originated in Berlin, became popular among the working class in the Ruhr, and the region quickly adopted Marxism.
But when the uprising was snuffed out by the Freikorps , everything was under the control of the Weimar Republic, until the Kapp Putsch happened which attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
The Weimar government came out victorious, but during that time, a return to an autocratic state was seen as the only way forward.
Large parts of the working class went out on a general strike advocated by the Weimar government that effectively ended the Kapp government, but in the Ruhr, striking workers successfully managed to take government buildings, shocking the rest of Germany.
An armed revolt was then instigated, and the Red Guard installed a branch in the Ruhr. This was known as the Ruhr Uprising.
The workers councils that led the uprising declared the Ruhr an independent, socialist republic, but the Freikorps and Reichswehr put down the rebellion and re-established control.
In March , French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland.
In January the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty.
The German government responded with " passive resistance ", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces.
Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany and France, as well as several other countries.
Passive resistance was called off in late , allowing Germany to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in However, the occupation of the Ruhr caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government.
Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation.
Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay.
On 7 March ,  Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30, troops into the Rhineland.
As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht. France's eastern allies the Soviet Union , Poland , Czechoslovakia , Romania and Yugoslavia concluded that since the French refused to defend their own border, they certainly would not stand up for their allies in the East.
Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France had built since The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund on 12 March with 1, aircraft — Lancasters, Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos — was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II.
More than 4, tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city. After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential.
The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area,  and the subsequent Ruhr Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Increased German control of the area was limited by the pooling of German coal and steel into the multinational European Coal and Steel Community in The nearby Saar region , containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France as a protectorate in and did not politically return to Germany until January , with economic reintegration occurring two years later.
Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr.
By , after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.
After , Germany was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from , in to 1.
The Ruhr region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive.
Likewise the Ruhr steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan. The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items.
As demand for coal decreased after , the area went through phases of structural crisis see steel crisis and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology.
The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve. The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in A page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common "Ruhr District" or "Ruhr Valley": Ben Tillett, A.
Yet "The report of a deputation from the Transport and General Workers' Union which spent a fortnight examining the problems in the Ruhr Valley", published in The Economic Review , Volume 8, , is still using the traditional term.
In the same year, "Objections by the United States to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.
Even after World War II, the term "Ruhr" may not have been in general use for the region: it was defined in Documents on American Foreign Relations : "For the purposes of the present Agreement: i the expression 'Ruhr' means the areas, as presently constituted, in Land North Rhine—Westphalia, listed in the Annex to this Agreement.
Cecil and Philip Hauge Abelson still write in "In the first place, the average person uses the term 'Ruhr' indiscriminately as the Ruhr River or the Ruhr district, two entirely different things.
The Ruhr River is only one of half a dozen rivers in the Ruhr district, in addition to the Rhine. The Rhine itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr district.
The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by "Ruhr Valley". The Ruhr has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours.
A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers normally average in the low 20s, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point.
The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch , although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect.
It is rather a working-class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers.
A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. For example, quite a few locals prefer to call the Ruhr either "Pott", which is a derivate of "Pütt" pitmen's term for mine ; cp.
During the nineteenth century, the Ruhr attracted up to , ethnic Poles , Masurians and Silesians from East Prussia and Silesia in a migration known as Ostflucht flight from the east.
By , the Ruhrgebiet had around 3,, inhabitants. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France , Ireland , and the United Kingdom.
It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr from over different countries. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a first language, and for various reasons, they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often their Polish family names only remain as a sign of their past.
Ruhr is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Ruhr has three major opera houses and more than 10 theaters and stages.
Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr in the Ruhr area with 50 to 80 events of classical and jazz music.
The Ruhr region has with 22 universities and colleges and more than ,  students, the highest density of further education establishments anywhere in Germany.
These include five universities alone in the cities of Bochum , Duisburg , Dortmund , Essen and Witten. In addition, Folkwang University of the Arts is an internationally acclaimed art college with its base in the Ruhr region.
Furthermore, the universities are not the only places in the Ruhr region where academic qualifications can be obtained.